My 1 October post apparently made it through the Texas A&M 'Purity Police' although I did hear that Huffington Post Science was blocked. Probably had an article with 'evolution' or 'climate change' in the title.
Today's articles won't get blocked. Good stuff, clean language.
This article, from Science (1994), was authored by by Naomi Oreskes, KristinShrader-Frechette, and Kenneth Belitz (former USGS hydrologist). It might be termed an 'Oldie but Goodie'.
Verification and validation of numerical models of natural systems is impossible. This is because natural systems are never closed and because model results are always non- unique. Models can be confirmed by the demonstration of agreement between observation and prediction, but confirmation is inherently partial. Complete confirmation is logically precluded by the fallacy of affirmingthe consequent and by incomplete access to natural phenomena. Models can only be evaluated in relative terms, and their predictive value is always open to question. The primary value of models is heuristic.
I am posting it because it's good and John Cherry referred to it in his IAH talk a few weeks ago.
Just stumbled across this publication today.
The International Waters (IW) Focal Area of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) covers water systems shared by two or more countries; underground aquifers, river basins and lakes as well as marine coasts, large marine ecosystems and open oceans. These different water systems face complex issues where interactions are not always well understood or often inadequately recognised. In more than twenty years of its history the GEF has invested over 1.3 billion US dollars in transboundary projects and programmes, catalyzing 7 billion US dollars of investment in managing shared waters – fresh and marine – in almost every part of our planet, above and below its surface. This significant investment includes a large and valuable resource of scientific knowledge and results-based management improvement opportunities for GEF. The crucial role for science in determining the nature and priority of investments has largely been ‘taken for granted’ until now, its role and full potential have not previously been documented and scrutinized.
This publication is very timely since to date, no effort has been made to recognize, capture, analyze and integrate the scientific findings from these projects and to disseminate them across the IW portfolio and beyond. Similarly, until now, there has been little opportunity
to inform IW project scientists and managers about broader global water science issues, in particular emerging challenges, new methodologies and science breakthroughs. There is a critical need for this cross- system comparative analysis for future strategic planning for the IW focal area. By making this knowledge widely available, GEF-eligible countries would be greatly
able to strengthen their scientific capacity and use of science. The results presented here would broaden the IW science base through the integration of social and natural sciences into a systems approach that will, in turn, strengthen ecosystem-based, adaptive management within IW projects.
The IW:Science project, a GEF Medium-sized project ‘Enhancing the use of science in IW projects to improve projects results’, laid down a fundamental scientific understanding of the IW portfolio efforts to date and provided data and analysis underpinning the findings and recommendation of this report – one of the key outcomes of this project. The Executing Agency, the United Nations University Institute for Water,Environment and Health (UNU-INWEH) should be praised for collating this report and for producing five sets of underlying, waters system specific reports, which provided understanding and documented, for future analysis and reference, the scientific experience and scientific best practices from the IW projects portfolio. The project results, including this publication, will enhance - through knowledge integration and information-sharing tools - the use of science in the GEF IW focal area to strengthen priority setting, knowledge sharing, and results-based, adaptive management in current and future projects.
This volume is significant proof that the science emerging from GEF projects contributes to our global knowledge on transboundary groundwaters, rivers, lakes, coastal areas, large marine ecosystems and the global ocean. It is an important step in raising the profile of GEF IW science globally. It provides an assessment and synthesis of science across the full IW portfolio, points out to emerging science issues, contemporary scientific challenges, research and science-policy gaps and global-scale impacts and research needs for action by the IW focal area. Documentation of use of science, the engagement of scientists, and the communication of scientific advice for results-based, adaptive management in the IW focal area as well as a policy-guidance overview which this report and the IW:Science project provides is invaluable for future GEF IW projects design.
Last but not least, all GEF recent and future projects will broadly benefit from further dissemination of this publication through the web page of IW:Learn – the GEF IW global knowledge management and learning platform. GEF will sustain the IW scientific learning network and its capacity for knowledge sharing, mutual learning in concert with global scientific community.
Give it a look!
This is another 'Oldie but Goodie', dating from 2002. It's got some great authors. Anthony (Tony) Turton is one of the editors - that did it for me.
The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is a regional grouping of 14 countries in Southern Africa: Angola, Botswana, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. SADC is governed by its 1992 Treaty, which provides, among others, for cooperation (article 21) that will contribute to and foster regional development and integration on the basis of balance, equity and mutual benefit for all its members. These principles are central to the activities of SADC and the protocols that have so far been developed, negotiated and agreed upon by member countries under its auspices.
Areas of co-operation are agreed to by member countries on the basis of sectors. To co-ordinate activities within sectors, appropriate institutions are established to harmonise and rationalise policies, strategies, programmes and projects. A distinct and dedicated Water Sector was established by the SADC Council of Ministers and endorsed by the Summit of Heads of State and Government in August 1996. The overall objective of the Sector is to “promote co-operation in all water matters in the SADC region for the sustainable and equitable development, utilisation and management of water resources and contribute towards the upliftment of the quality of life of the people of the SADC region.” When this objective is fully achieved it will contribute to the attainment of the Southern African Vision for Water in the 21st century of “equitable and sustainable utilisation of water for social, environmental, justice, and economic benefit for present and future generations” (adopted by SADC Sectoral Committee of Ministers in 1999).
The challenges facing the SADC Water Sector will require the concerted efforts of all involved to avert potential adversity. These include the provision of adequate quantities and quality of water and safe sanitation services to approximately 200 million people living mainly in rural areas in the region. The majority lack access to these basic services. The other pressing challenge is to prevent and avoid conflicts that may arise as result of competing demands for access to water and the possibly inequitable utilisation of water resources for a variety of uses. The region is characterised by a large number of internationally shared watercourses. One of the 15 major shared watercourses, the Zambezi, is shared by eight of the 14 SADC member countries. Shared watercourses account for about 70% of the available freshwater resources. This situation is made more pronounced by different water rights regimes in SADC countries, a fact which calls for the harmonisation of national policies, strategies, legal frameworks and institutions with regional instruments such as the Water Protocol across and among sectors. Floods and droughts that occur in the region with increasing frequency and intensity further prioritise the co-ordinated management and development of water in the SADC region.
To address some of these challenges, SADC has signed and ratified a protocol for the judicious management and utilisation of shared watercourses, in 1995 and 1998, respectively. The SADC Protocol on Shared Watercourse Systems was the first ever regional protocol and has since been revised to take cognisance of new developments in6 Foreword
international water law and the current socio-economic development in the region. In addition, SADC developed a sectoral Regional Strategic Action Plan for Integrated Management and Development of Water Resources in 1998. The Strategy (commonly referred to as the RSAP) identified seven issues and constraints in the sector and identified areas of intervention that will address these issues.
This timely book will play an important role in disseminating relevant information to highlight theoretical and legal issues in the water sector in the region. It will be a useful reference for policy makers and practitioners involved in the Water Sector in the region and beyond. Its contents will appeal to a wide spectrum of readers and should therefore assist in promoting the process of regional integration and co-operation in the water and related sectors. It is hoped that the book will generate dialogue around the issues of integrated water resource management, and will assist in avoiding conflict arising around water.
"It always seems impossible until its done." - Nelson Mandela