Here is a brief (8 pages) report from the Congressional Research Service by Peter Folger,Funding for Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CSS) at DOE.
Carbon capture and sequestration (or storage)—known as CCS—is a physical process that involves capturing man-made carbon dioxide (CO2) at its source and storing it before its release to the atmosphere. CCS could reduce the amount of CO2 emitted to the atmosphere from the continued use of fossil fuels at power plants and other large, industrial facilities. An integrated CCS system would include three main steps: (1) capturing CO2 before it is emitted to the atmosphere and separating it from other gases; (2) purifying, compressing, and transporting the captured CO2 to the sequestration site; and (3) injecting the CO2 into subsurface geological reservoirs. Following its injection into a subsurface reservoir, the CO2 would need to be monitored for leakage and to verify that it remains in the target geological reservoir. Once injection operations cease, a responsible party would need to take title to the injected CO2 and ensure that it stays underground in perpetuity.
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has pursued research and development (R&D) of aspects of the three main steps leading to an integrated CCS system since 1997.1 Congress has long been interested in the future of CCS as a mitigation strategy for lowering global emissions of CO2. Since FY2008, Congress has appropriated more than $7 billion for CCS activities at DOE.2 Nearly half that funding, $3.4 billion, came from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (P.L. 111-5; enacted February 17, 2009; hereinafter referred to as the Recovery Act). Authority to expend Recovery Act funding expired at the end of FY2015.3
The large and rapid influx of funding for industrial-scale CCS projects from the Recovery Act was intended to accelerate development and demonstration of CCS in the United States. Along with the large financial boost to CCS research and development provided by the Recovery Act, Congress continued to appropriate additional funds annually to support other CCS activities. CCS-focused research and development has come to dominate the coal program area within DOE Fossil Energy Research and Development (FER&D) since the Recovery Act was enacted.
Table 1 and Table 2 of this report show the funding for DOE CCS programs since 2010 under FER&D, including the Administration’s FY2017 budget proposal. Table 1 shows funding from FY2010 through FY2016, including Recovery Act funding. Table 2 shows a comparison between FY2016 enacted funding and the FY2017 budget proposal, including proposed changes to the budget structure for FY2017.
Good reading for a Saturday in late April.
"If you cannot convince them, confuse them." - Harry S Truman